Globally, in high risk industries, it has been known for a long time that human failure lies behind the majority of major incidents. However, unless we understand why people fail, we may not provide the right solutions to prevent them from happening in the first place. The model of auditing and training has been applied to control the risk of human failure. But investigations of major incidents show that the people involved in most cases knew the “manuals” and they also had the right competences. Will a new procedure or training course then help? We think the answer is “No”. In more and more industries staff have reached a training plateau, and they do not see the benefit of doing more of the same to reduce incidents. For organisations involved in high-risk operations in a rapidly changing world, we need to learn, on the job, all the time, and regard failures as a way to develop, innovate, change and control the risk of human failure.